Saturday, December 31, 2011

15. (O) Basic Banking Guide A to Z

O

Objective clause
This is the most important clause in memorandum of a company which covers business objectivethe for the formation of the company.

Obligation
It refers to liability or duty to do something or refrain from doing something under the terms of a contract

Off-balance sheet
Accounting entries not shown on a balance sheet, such as an operating lease or a deferred or contingent asset or liability which is shown only when it becomes 'actual.

Offer
An offer is a show of intention or proposal. When an offer is accepted it becomes a contract.

Offered price
Price which a stock dealer is willing to accept for securities and shares

Offer for sale
Invitation to the public to buy shares of a new company

Official
Any thing authorized

Official rate
Rate issued by the SBP authorized committee to deal in foreign exchange

Official receiver
An impartial party appointed by a http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/bankruptcy.html court as an interim receiver and manager of the property to which debt is charged or an inherited property to be distributed among the legal heirs.

Officials
An individual or persons holding an office or title of authority. Such as branch managers area managers are officials who have the ability to act on behalf of the bank, or give direction to subordinate employees.

Offshore funds
An offshore fund is that which is governed by the Offshore Fund Rules.

Off the record
Statement that is said in aside and is not meant to be a part of the recorded account of a proceeding such as an interview or a court case.

Ombudsman
An independent, judge who listen  and decides complaints about wrong doing / maladministration in government departments and particular services in the public and private sectors.

Onboard bill of lading
This is a B/L which certifies that the goods have been received in apparent good condition and have been taken on board in the ship on the stated date.

On consignment
This is an arrangement generally in export under which goods are delivered by a consignor to a consignee on the terms that goods will be sold and than payment will be made to the consignee.

On cost
The total money and resources associated with a purchase or business activity.

On demand
Payable on presentation. All negotiable instruments which are payable on demand should be paid on the day it is presented to the drawee branch for payment (if otherwise in order).

One-off
Approval made of individual basis, or made only once. For example if a new customer request for opening of L/C, generally approval is given n one-off basis. Once credentials of customer are established, a regular limit is assigned.

One-stop banking
This refers that all type of banking services are available at one place.

On-line
It refers to a system through which branches are linked with each other through a link with computer center

Open cheque
A cheque which is not crossed, hence payable at the counter of the bank.

Open ended
It refers to an agreement where no set limit, either in time or money is fixed. For example money market funds are generally open ended. The investor can invest any amount for indefinite period.

Opening a crossing
It refers to cancellation of crossing. The drawer can open crossing by cutting it and adding his or her signature

Open market
It refers to a situation where price of goods and services are governed by the forces of demand and supply, and not by exploitation by cartels .

Open market operation
It refers to the buying and selling of government securities by central bank of any country, such as SBP in Pakistan in order to control money supply. When it sells the securities, the central bank soaks up the liquidity, and when it buys them it injects liquidity in the local economy.

Open offer
An open offer, in that shareholders are entitled to buy newly issued shares in proportion to their existing holdings. In an open offer shareholders have an entitlement rather than a trade able right to subscribe to new shares.

Open policy
An open policy is that in which the amount of the insured is not fixed by the policy, and is to be ascertained in case of loss.

Open position
It refers to a position that has not yet closed.

Operating income
Income resulting from a company's primary business operations, excluding extraordinary income and expenses. Formula: Sale - (Cost of sales + Operating expenses).

Operation
Service delivery side of the bank

Opportunity cost
The cost of passing on the next best choice when making a decision. For example, capital is invested in a company. The investor could use it in any fixed income Govt Scheme. Opportunity cost is the value of the next best purpose for which the asset could have been used.

Option
The power of choosing between different alternative

Order cheque
A cheque to a named person and its payment is made after verification.

Ordinary shares
A share of common stock.

Ordinary resolution
It is a resolution which require only ordinary or simple majority (over half of the votes of shareholders or of their proxies) to be adopted or passed, and may not require any notice of their proposal.

Organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC)
This is an organization founded in 1960 by those nations that export large quantity of petroleum.  The purpose was to form policies and set prices of petroleum.

Original bill
Bill of exchange before any endorsement, First negotiable copy of B/L

Out of date cheque
It refers to a stale cheque.  There is a banking practice to refuse cheques and drafts after 6 months and they ask for their revalidation.

Out of pattern transactions
Large inflow and outflow of funds which do not match with the declared profession or type of account.

Output
The material produced or work done in a prescribe time.

Overcapitalized
It refers to provide an excessive amount of capital in a business.

Overdraft
An excessive drawing  from a checking account, over and above credit balance available

Overdue bill
A bill not paid or not realized on due date.

Overhead cost
It refers to the indirect cost or expense such as for administration, insurance, rent, and utility charges that relates to an operation as a whole, but does not become an integral part of a good or service unlike raw material or direct labor.

Overnight borrowing
Borrowing from call money market from one business day to another.

Oversubscribed
Receipt of excess shares application than shares offered

Over the counter
It refers to the trading directly between two parties. For example an open cheque can be paid over the counter of the bank.

Overtrading
Transacting more business than the company's working capital can normally keep up. This result into serious cash flow problems and can destroy overall health and reputation of the company.

Owner
Person or entity that possesses the exclusive right to hold, use, , transfer, and dispose of an asset or property.

Owner equity
It refers to the capital invested in a company calculated by deducting liabilities from the assets. this also called net assets, net worth, shareholders' equity,

Ownership
Exclusive rights to enjoy, occupy, possess, rent, sell fully or partially, or even destroy a piece of property.

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