Wednesday, December 28, 2011

6. (F) Basic Banking Guide A to Z


F

Face value
The value printed on the face of a share, bond, or other financial instrument.

Facility letter
Intimation in writing to the customer from the bank, that such and such financial facilities are approved.

Facsimile
An exact copy or reproduction, as of a document

Feasibility report
A feasibility report is prepared to provide an overview of the primary issues related to a business idea or financial accommodation. It is a study, to determine whether the business idea will be productive / profitable or not? Feasibility basically provides, market analysis which is necessary in order to determine the project’s viability. This information provides the basis for the financial facilities to be sectioned for the business plan. 

A feasibility report covers three major areas: 
a. Market issues 
b. Technical issues 
c. Financial issues 

Fidelity clause
This is a clause in banker’s insurance policy which protects banks against losses (such as embezzlement or theft by employees) that are not generally covered under normal theft or burglary policies. It is a blanket bond (applying to all employees). 

Final accounts
Accounts made at the end of a company's financial year. The final accounts consist on manufacturing account,  trading account, profit and loss account, and  profit and loss appropriation account. A trading firm's final accounts will include all of the above except the manufacturing account. 

Final dividend
Dividend declared at the end of the financial year.

Financial statement
These reports shows how a firm has used the funds of shareholders and lenders, and what is its current financial position. The three basic financial statements are the balance sheet, which shows company's assets, liabilities, and net worth on a stated date; income statement which shows how the net income of the company is arrived at over a stated period, and cash flow statement, which shows the inflows and outflows of cash during a stated period.

Financial year
Accounting period that can start on any day of a calendar year but has twelve consecutive months at the end of which account books are closed, profit or loss is computed, and financial reports are prepared . it may or may not match with calendar year.

First in first out (FIFO)
This is a method of inventory accounting in which the oldest remaining items are assumed to have been the sold first. In a period of rising prices, this method shall result into a controlled inventory, a lower cost of goods sold, a higher gross profit and vice versa.

Fiscal year
Twelve months period which is covered by the government in yearly budget. It is also called a tax year. In Pakistan it starts from 1st of July and ends on 30th June.

Fixed assets
Any asset expected to be in use for, more than one year is considered a fixed asset. On a balance sheet, these assets are shown at their book value i.e. purchase price less depreciation.

Fixed charge
Charge (mortgage or lien) on a specific fixed-asset to secure financial facilities. In case of limited company, the banks also registers  charge against the asset with the registrar which remains in force until the loan is repaid. 

Fixed charges
Expenses such as rent, interest, and insurance salaries.etc, which are not related with the actual production/output.

Fixed cost
Cost that remains almost unchanged irrespective of the production level or sales revenue of the company, such as depreciation, insurance, rent, salaries, etc.

Fixed deposit
Fixed deposits is an arrangements where a specific amount of money is placed on deposit under the name of the account holder for a fixed period .Profit is paid as per terms and conditions govern with the account.  Banks offer different deposit products which fall under fixed deposit category.

Fixed loan
A loan repayable of a predefined future date. 

Fixture
Items that are attached to a  property in a manner that it becomes a part of that property. Fixtures are sold and transferred with the real property, even if they are not mentioned in the sale deed. 

Float
The amounts of collected funds remain in the bank, against which no cheque or claim is lodged. The time that elapses between the days a cheque is deposited and the day it is presented for payment to the bank or financial institution on which it is drawn. 

Floating assets
Assets which continuously change in quantity or in value, e.g. accounts receivable, cash, stocks, etc.

Floating charge
Charge on an asset that changes in quantity and/or value from time to time such as an inventory, to secure the repayment of financial facilities.

Floating rate
Any mark-up/ profit rate that changes on the movement of an outside indicator, such as the KIBOR rate. For example, a rate set at " KIBOR plus 2%". This means that the rate on the loan will always be 2% higher than the KIBOR rate, which changes regularly to take into account changes in the inflation rate. 

Floor limit
A floor limit is the amount of money above which credit or debit card transactions must be authorized. It also refers to the minimum profit rate to be charged r recovered.

FOB
The FOB stands for "Free On Board", which means that the seller shall pay for transportation of the goods to the port of shipment, plus loading costs only. The buyer shall pay cost of marine freight  transport, insurance, unloading, and transportation from the arrival port to the final destination.

Forced Sale Value (FSV)
It refers to the value which fully reflects the possibility of price fluctuations and can currently be obtained by selling the mortgaged / pledged assets in a forced / distressed sale conditions.

Foreclosure
The foreclosure is the legal proceedings initiated by a the bank to repossess the collateral for loan that is in default. It is a legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to repay the loan when the loan is in default.

Foreign bill for collection
Collection of a bill payable in other country (abroad)

Foreign currency
Any currency other than the local currency which is used in settling international transactions. Also called foreign exchange.

Foreign currency account
Accounts other than Pak Rupees are Foreign Currency accounts. Foreign currency account can be opened only in those branches that have been permitted by SBP to deal in Foreign Exchange. Rules related to foreign currencies are given in SBP’s Foreign Exchange Manual chapter VI. All CDD/KYC and AML rules and regulations applicable to Pak rupees accounts are applicable to Foreign Currency Accounts.

Foreign draft
A draft issued by or drawn on a foreign country. 

Foreign exchange
Any currency other than the local currency which is used in settling international transactions. Also called foreign currency.

Foreign trade
Trade with the other countries is called Foreign trade. It is important to the economy because of the country's need to import a variety of products which are not locally produced. Pakistan had a deficit on its balance of trade each year from 1973.

FOREX
This is the abbreviation of foreign exchange and also used fot foreign exchange market.

Forfeit
To subject to seizing as a forfeit

Forfeiture
The loss of rights to an asset outlined in a legal contract if a borrower  fails to fulfill obligations of the contract signed.

Forged cheque
A cheque on which the drawer's signature has been forged. 

Forged currency
This is counterfeit currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government.

Forged signature
Signing in place of some un-authorized person for execution of a document. if someone forges a signature on a cheque, the person whose signature was forged is not then bound to honor the cheque, and the bank does not have to pay it. If a bank pays a cheque with forged signatures, it has to make good any loss that the payment causes the customer. It does not matter how good the forgery is; a skilful forgery is no more valid than a crude one. 

Forgery
The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a legal document, or cheque  with the intention to deceive or defraud other. 

Forward exchange
Financial transaction involving the exchange of currency to be completed at a future date.

Forward rate
Currency price agreed for delivery on a future date. If that date lies within two business days, it is a spot transaction, otherwise it is a forward exchange transaction.

Franchise
Privilege granted to make or market a good or service under a patented process or trademarked name, and Business operating under such privilege .e.g. franchise of KFC.

Franking machine
A machine that automatically postal stamps envelops passing through it and computes the total charge. 

Fraud
A unlawful deliberately practiced in order to secure unfair or unlawful gain.

Fraudulent
Any thing gained by fraud.

Fraudulent conveyance
Transfer of property by a debtor, with the intention and purpose of moving it outside the reach of creditors' existing or future claims. 

Free port
Free trade area of an entire port such as Hong Kong, Dubai, Panama, and Singapore, where imported goods may be stored duty-free pending re-export.

Free trade
Unrestricted interchange of goods and services (but not of capital or labor) without by high  duties/ tariffs, and quotas. Under a GATT (now WTO) treaty signed by 124 nations including Pakistan in 1995, tariffs will be systematically cut during a fixed timeframe.

Free trade area 
This is a group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most (if not all) goods and services traded between them.

Freight
Charges paid for carriage or transportation of goods by air, land, or sea.

Freight forwarder
Companies specialized in arranging storage and shipping of goods . they generally provides full range of services including inland transportation, preparation of shipping documents, warehousing, negotiating freight charges, insurance, and filing of insurance claims incase of any eventuality. Freight forwarders generally ship under their own bills of lading or air waybills called house bill of lading or house air waybill

Fringe benefit
Compensation in addition to direct wages or salaries, such as company car, Petrol and medical reimbursement, pension schemes, subsidized meals. Some fringe benefits are regarded part of a taxable income.

Frozen account
Bank account from which no funds can be withdrawn because of some definite / legal reason. A deceased account is automatically frozen until its legal process for release of funds is completed. 

Fully paid share
Shares whose full par value has been received by the issuing company. In Pakistan shares are generally issued against full par value not in part/ installment.

Funds based liability
It refers to the liabilities which effects the financial resources of a company, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/accounts-receivable-A-R.html. Any change in these immediately reflected in the company's financial position. 

Fund flow statement
This is the statement is also called cash flow statement. It summaries actual or anticipated incomings and outgoings of cash in a company over an accounting period. The cash flow statements is used as the basis for budgeting and business-planning. The accounting data is presented in three main portions sales of goods or services activities, purchase / investing activities and Financing-activities (borrowings, or sale of common stock). While sanctioning facilities to a firm banks   closely examine the cash flow to assess ability of the company to repay the loan. 

Funding
Arrangement of financial resources to finance a business or project. Generally, this term is used when a company requires cash from its own internal reserves, or from external resource such as banks.

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